The Militia of Utah    

M E M B E R S :


The Militia of Utah

10 June 2024

Training on Communication

Primary means of communication: Speaking person to person

The primary means of communication for members of the Militia is verbal, speaking person to person. We will communicate to each other verbally (with respect to each member) in a regular tone of voice. Should the situation require, shouting or yelling may be necessary while outdoors or in places where sound doesn’t travel well. When the situation requires, silence may dictate that low voices or whispering be used. During a tactical movement, the Militia members may be required to silence their voices, radios and cell phones.

Secondary means of communication: Speaking over the radio

The secondary means of communication used by members of the Militiais over a push to talk radio. When using a radio, after pushing the talk button wait three seconds and then speak in a normal tone of voice. At times when things get chaotic, adrenalin kicks in and causes our voices to rise and we speak quickly. Before using the radio, think about the message you want to convey. Take a deep breath and clearly speak your message. Remember, the longer it takes you to get your message across, the longer others have to wait to convey their message – which could be more urgent.

Tertiary means of communication: Cell phone

If you are unable to talk person to person and for whatever reason the radio isn’t working (dead battery, too far away, too much interference) the third means of communication is the cell phone. Almost everyone has a cell phone and cell phone numbers should be on file with the Militia.

Our communication with each other should always be respectful and follow the K.I.S.S. format – “Keep It Simple Stupid”. Sarcasm and disrespect has no place in our communications.

Other means of communication not used by all members of the Militia include hand and arm signals, sound and light. If necessary, some units within the Militia may implement the above means of communication but that would be on a case by case basis and would be taught by the team leaders.

There are varieties of communication, or “Languages” used by Military units, Law Enforcement and Ham radio operators (Alpha/Numeric, 10-codes, phonetics) the Militia will use a combination of the military alphabet and common English.

When using a radio, it’s important to identify 1. Who you are and 2. Who you would like to talk to and 3. How you are being received. If reception is poor, you may have to move to a different location or use a different method to communicate. If the time of day is being discussed, it will be spoken in “Military” time. Military time should be taught and learned by all team members. As an example, 6:30 pm is 1830 – “Eighteen Thirty” in Military time. If the time were 3 am, in Military time it would be 0300 or “Zero Three Hundred Hours”. Shortened it would be “O Three Hundred”.

Incident Command Center = “ICC”

A team = “Alpha team”

B team = “Bravo team”

C team = “Charlie team”

D team = “Delta team”

Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Joliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike , November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu


If the ICC (Incident Command Center) wanted to communicate over the radio to C team or “Charlie” team leader (or Charlie team’s Radio / Telephone Operator “RTO”), it would sound like this:

ICC to Charlie Team, how copy”.

To answer, the Charlie team leader or RTO would respond by saying, “Charlie Team, good copy, go ahead”.

The calling party then communicates its’ message in plain English.

If Charlie team doesn’t respond, the calling party would say, “ICC to Charlie team, ICC to Charlie team”. If Charlie team still does not respond, ICC could make a 3rd attempt over the radio – “ICC to Charlie Team, ICC to Charlie team, do you copy”. Or, the ICC may attempt to contact Charlie Team Leader by calling them on their cell phone.

If B team wanted to communicate to the ICC, it would sound like this: “Bravo team to ICC, how copy?”.

The reply would be “Go ahead Bravo team, good copy.”

From time to time, the ICC may desire to communicate over the radio to different teams or team leaders on a different radio channel or frequency for security reasons. Radio channels and frequencies will be pre-determined and each team will know them.

To do so, the radio communication would sound like this:

ICC to Delta Team Leader”

Delta Team Leader, go ahead”

Delta Team Leader switch to channel 12”

Delta Team Leader, Roger, switching to channel 12”.


Delta Team to ICC, repeat last”

ICC to Delta Team Leader switch to channel 12”


Alpha Team Leader to Bravo Team Leader”

Bravo Team Leader, go ahead”

Bravo Team Leader please switch to channel 14

Alpha Team Leader, Roger, switching to channel 14


  • Roger: Understood

  • Affirm: Yes

  • Negative: No

  • Klicks: Kilometers

  • Mikes: Minutes

  • Out: Done with the conversation

  • Repeat Last or Say Again: Repeat the last transmission

  • Poor Copy, repositioning: I am receiving you poorly and moving to a better location

  • CODE 3: I am in immediate danger and need assistance.

  • Man Down: We have a casualty on the field and need him/her recovered.

  • RP: Rally Point

  • Contact: Taking fire from the enemy

Things to keep in mind:

  • Situations can become chaotic in the field. Minimize communications. ICC is monitoring all radios comms, and too much chatter can get confusing.

  • All internal team communication should be done on team frequencies and not the main ICC channel.

  • All radios should be programmed using the approved programming file (see Cezanne to get your radios programmed)

  • ICC – Channel 44 – ICC1

  • ICC secondary – Channel 45 – ICC2

  • Alpha Team Internal – Channel 18 – ALPHA

  • Delta Team Internal – Channel 19 – DELTA1

  • Bravo Team Internal – Channel 20 – BRAVO

  • Charlie Team Internal – Channel 21 – CHARLIE

  • *These frequencies are good to know in case teams need to crosstalk to coordinate without overwhelming the ICC.

  • If using the Baofeng Radios, they are able to monitor two channels at the same time. Set one to your team channel and one to ICC Main.

  • You can only talk on one channel at a time, and you select that channel by pressing the A/B or the EXIT button, depending on your radio. A black arrow will appear on the screen next to the transmitting channel.

  • When transmitting, hold your talk button down for approximately three seconds before speaking. This will prevent your identity from being cut off.

  • If someone is speaking on the channel, do not key your mic and begin talking. Nobody will hear and you may step on the current transmission so that it cannot be understood. If it is urgent, call out on a different channel.

  • All of our communication is “in the open”meaning non-encrypted and can be monitored. Don’t say anything that could get you in legal trouble and don’t use names on the air.

A well regulated Militia Utah Constitutional Militia 2015-2024